Style Guidelines

Author style and content guidelines

Manuscripts should be compiled in the following order: title page; abstract;   summary box of 3–4 implications for practice, theory or policy (one sentence each); keywords; main text; acknowledgements; references; appendices (as appropriate); table(s) with caption(s) (on individual pages); figure caption(s) (as a list).


All persons who have a reasonable claim to authorship must be named; the corresponding author must be authorised by all co-authors to act as an agent on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication of the manuscript, and the order of names should be agreed by all authors.


Manuscripts are accepted in English.

Please use British (-ise) spelling style consistently throughout your manuscript.

Please use single quotation marks, except where ‘a quotation is “within” a quotation’.

We aim for plain English wherever possible to ensure the content is as clear and accessible as possible without losing meaning.

Capitalisation should be kept to a minimum –  names of people and places (proper nouns), titles of a specific initiative, policy or programme, rather than something general. 


Do not use footnotes. List as Notes after the main text, before the reference list.


In the text

The journal uses the Harvard reference style (based on APA-7 2020). In the text style as,

One author: (Wilson, 2002)

Two authors: (Wilson & Jones, 2002)

Three or more authors: (Wilson et al, 2002)

If there is more than one work by the same leading author, list the second or more authors as needed to differentiate (eg Dyregrov et al, 2020; Dyregrov, Lytje et al, 2020)

Reference list style and punctuation
When there is more than one work by the same author, list the most recent first.

Add a DOI, when available, at the end of an entry for a digital reference in International DOI Foundation format ( . .)

One to seven authors:  list all names in the reference list.

More than seven authors: list the first six, followed by an ellipsis and the last name. eg

Harrop E, Goss S, Farnell D, Longo M, Byrne A, Barawi K…Selman LE (2021) Support needs and barriers to accessing support: Baseline results of a mixed-methods national survey of people bereaved during the COVID-19 pandemic. Palliative Medicine, 35(10). https://doi: 10.1177/02692163211043372

Dow D (1964) A history of the world (3rd ed). Greenfield.
Mercer PA & Smith G (1993) Private view data in the UK (2nd ed). Longman.

Two to six authors
Cutler T, Williams K & Williams J (1986) Keynes, Beveridge and beyond. Routledge.

More than six authors
Pearce IF, Trivedi PK, Stromback CT, Anderson GJ, Wilson JL, Smith P et al (1976) A model of output, employment, wages and prices in the UK. Cambridge University Press.

Edited book
Chester DN (ed) (1951) Lessons of the British war economy. Greenwood Press.

Bantz CR (1995) Social dimensions of software development. In: JA Anderson (ed). Annual review of software management and development, 17–36. Sage.

Conference proceedings.
Silver K (1991) Electronic mail: the new way to communicate. In: 9th international online information meeting, 3–5 December 1990, London. Oxford: Learned Information, 323–330. Available at: www.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxx [accessed 4 November 2021].

Dissertation or thesis
Agutter AJ (1995) The linguistic significance of current British slang. Thesis (PhD). Edinburgh University. Available at: www.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxx [accessed 4 November 2021].
Agutter AJ (1995) The linguistic significance of current British slang. Unpublished thesis. Edinburgh University.

Film, video, TV

Macbeth (1948) Film. Directed by Orson Welles.  Republic Pictures.
Birds in the garden (1998) Video. London: Harper Videos.

TV broadcast  
News at ten (2001) BBC television broadcast, Jan 27. 22.00 hrs.
Blair T (1997) Interview. Seven o’clock news. Channel 4 television broadcast. Feb 29. 18.23 hrs

Government document
School Curriculum and Assessment Authority (UK) (1997) Guide to national tests. The Stationery Office. Available at: www.xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxx [accessed 4 November 2021].


Web page, website, e-book
Holland M (2004) Guide to citing Internet sources [online].  Bournemouth University.
Available at: [accessed 4 November 2021].

If no author, reference by title.

Journal article.
Evans WA (1994) Approaches to intelligent information retrieval. Information Processing and Management, 7(2) 147–168.

Add a DOI, when available, at the end of an entry for a digital reference in International DOI Foundation format ( . .)

Online journal
Korb KB (1995) Persons and things: book review of Bringsjord on Robot-Consciousness. Psycoloquy [online] 6(15). Available at: [accessed 20 May 2022].


Please provide the highest quality figure format possible.

Compliance with ethics of experimentation

Authors must ensure that research reported in submitted manuscripts has been conducted in an ethical and responsible manner, in full compliance with all relevant codes of experimentation and legislation.

Authors must confirm that any patient, service user, or participant (or that person’s parent or legal guardian) in any research, experiment or clinical trial who is described in the manuscript has given written consent to the inclusion of material pertaining to themselves, and that they acknowledge that they cannot be identified via the manuscript; and that authors have anonymised them and do not identify them in any way. Where such a person is deceased, authors must warrant they have obtained the written consent of the deceased person’s family or estate.